architecture, Banqueting House, belvedere, Carmarthenshire, eyecatcher, Folly, garden history, landscape, Monument, Observatory, Tower

The Nelson Tower, aka Paxton’s Tower, Llanarthney, Carmarthenshire

High above the valley of the River Towy stands a sturdy, and seemingly invincible, tower. It was built to commemorate Admiral Lord Nelson, but within a century it was falling into decay, and it only narrowly escaped conversion into a cowshed.

William Paxton (1744-1844) had been Master of the Mint in Calcutta, a role that was as lucrative as it sounds. He returned to Britain towards the end of the 18th century and bought Middleton Hall in Carmarthenshire, where he began work on a new house and pleasure grounds. The tower, high above his estate, was ‘now erecting’ in 1808 when it was called ‘a grand Castellated Edifice, designed to honour the Memory of the Immortal Nelson’. It must have been largely complete externally by 1809, when a visitor noted the ‘fine Bird’s Eye view of the House and grounds of Middleton Hall’ which it commanded.

Engraving of Middleton Hall published in 1818.

The tower was described in detail in the South Wales volume of The Beauties of England & Wales, which was published in 1815 but compiled in the preceding years. Thomas Rees wrote that ‘of late, a new and pleasing circumstance has been added by Sir William Paxton […] a lofty tower on a conspicuous summit’. The ‘elegant design’ was by ‘Mr Cockerell’*. The tower had a ‘lofty and sumptuous banqueting room’ on the first floor and a ‘prospect room’ on the upper storey. Stairs then led to a viewing platform on the roof. The upper apartment was not finished when Rees visited, and Sir William (he was knighted in 1803) was in the process of commissioning painted glass panels showing scenes from the life of Lord Nelson.

One of the painted glass panels showing Nelson, as executed by one Mr Grey. Carmarthenshire Museum Collection.

Rees also noted that a marble tablet was on order which was to carry a Latin inscription honouring the admiral. Later histories describe inscribed plaques above each of the three doors, with the tribute in Latin, Welsh, and English:

‘To the Invincible Commander, Viscount Nelson, in Commemoration of Deeds before the Walls of Copenhagen, and on the Shores of Spain; of the Empire everywhere maintained by him over the Seas; and of the death which in the fulness of his own glory, though ultimately for his own Country and for Europe, conquering, he died. This Tower was erected by William Paxton’.

A grand hilltop folly attracts equally grand stories, especially with such as prominent personage as Paxton. His career in India over, he aspired to be a Member of Parliament, and there are tales of how he spent lavishly to ‘encourage’ the electorate to vote for him. Among the local legends is one which tells that he promised to build a new bridge over the River Towy if successful, but when he failed to win the seat at his first attempt, he instead had the stone carted up the hill to build his tower.

The tower became a great local landmark, and having a vista to the folly was considered a selling point when local estates came to the market. It remained a popular destination throughout the 19th century, and in 1887 was the focus of celebrations to mark Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria’s reign. The Union Jack was flown from the top of the tower, and a huge banner inscribed with the letters V.R. was draped over the western elevation so that it was visible across the valley.

The tower as seen across the valley from the ruins of Castel Dryslwyn. Storm clouds approaching.

By 1903 however the local paper was expressing concern that ‘this handsome structure is now exhibiting evidence of decay’. Fearing for the safety of the painted glass panels, descendants of the Abadam family (who bought the estate soon after Paxton’s death in 1824) gave the glass to the Carmarthenshire Museum for safekeeping before selling the estate in 1909. In 1934 the future of the tower looked precarious, and it was dismissed by one onlooker as a ‘vast and useless sentinel’.

But happily a few years later its status as a historic building was beginning to be recognised, and in February 1950 the Western Mail ran the headline ‘Noted Tower in Danger of Collapse’. The paper reported that heritage bodies were powerless as the building was not scheduled as an ancient monument. Two years later a preservation order was obtained just in the nick of time: the farmer, fearing that falling masonry would concuss his cattle, planned to demolish the tower and use the ‘stones to erect a cowhouse’. The planning officer, Mr R. Randles (a pragmatic fellow), summed things up: ‘It will fall down eventually but the point is it will be there for a little longer’.

Unlike Mr Randles, Viscount Emlyn, whose seat was the nearby Golden Grove, was confident that the tower would endure. In 1964, when High Sheriff of Carmarthenshire, he bought the tower and donated it to the National Trust. It was restored in the 1970s and remains a popular attraction, although sadly the inscriptions are long gone, and there is no access to the upper rooms. Paxton’s Tower is listed at grade II*.

The tower on one of a series of stamp books featuring follies issued in 1982


* Generally accepted to be Samuel Pepys Cockerell, who worked on Middleton Hall, but a drawing in the RIBA collection is attributed to his son Charles Robert.

For information on visiting the tower see

Middleton Hall was demolished in the middle of the 20th century. The grounds are now home to the National Botanic Garden of Wales. For more on Paxton and Middleton Hall see this excellent paper

Please scroll down to the comments section if you would like to share any thoughts or further information. Thank you for reading.

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8 thoughts on “The Nelson Tower, aka Paxton’s Tower, Llanarthney, Carmarthenshire”

  1. John Malaiperuman says:

    I love the title “Master of the Mint”. Thank goodness the folly was saved. Pity about the house.

    1. Editor says:

      Hello John. It’s a wonderful landmark and wonderful that it survives. Middleton Hall is a sad loss, but the site at least has an exciting future as home to the National Botanic Garden of Wales.

  2. Kate Harwood says:

    Paxton was partner of Charles Cockerell in India where they both made a lot of money through ‘Lucrative Arithhmetik’. Cockerell, of course, built Sezincote (architect, and brother, SP Cockerell) with help from William Daniell, the painter of Indian scenes. Perhaps the biggest ‘folly’ or collection follies of the Indian ones in Britain.

    1. Editor says:

      Hello Kate, and thanks for taking the time to post such an interesting comment. Lucrative Arithmetik must have been responsible for some fine architecture, including, as you say, the amazing Sezincote.

  3. Judy Popley says:

    Fascinating article, as always. I’ve just been reading the masterly tome: Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of the East India Company by William Dalrymple who has extensive knowledge of India.

    Quote from Amazon “A wonderfully readable history of the East India Company — The best history books of 2019 ― Prospect A dazzling account of multinational corporate rapacity in one of its first forms, the East India Company; yet again Dalrymple manages brilliantly to be both historian and contemporary analyst — Robert Macfarlane, author of ‘Underland: A Deep Time Journey’ Extraordinarily ….”

    Interesting to know that the Botanic Gardens of Wales have taken over the estate – at least it hasn’t been turned into a trading estate or housing estate! Thanks again for your research.

  4. Editor says:

    Hello Judy and thanks for your lovely comments. I haven’t seen his book on the East India Company, but I have read other works by Dalrymple, and as you say he is the best in the field. I will add this book to my (very long) list of future reading.

    1. Kate Harwood says:

      If you’re really interested in the effect India had on the British – and vice versa – the John Keay’s books are good. Also Anthony Farrington’ Trading Places’, Philip Lawson’ ‘The East India Company: a history, Lawrence James ‘Raj: The making and unmaking British India’ and Jeremy Bernstein ‘Dawning of the Raj’. All good and then there are various tomes on gardens!

      1. Editor says:

        Thanks Kate. I just need a few more hours in each day…

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