architecture, eyecatcher, Folly, garden, garden history, Grotto, landscape, Surrey

The Grotto and Cottage Orné, Oatlands Park, Surrey, as seen by the novelist Denton Welch

Denton Welch was a talented artist and writer, but his career was sadly cut short by his early death in 1948. A few years before he died he described an ornate 18th century grotto in one of his novels: the fabulous grotto was for real, but it was demolished in the same year that Welch died, making his description all the more poignant.

Denton Welch (1915-1948) was an unhappy, motherless schoolboy, on a summer break from Repton school, when he joined his father and brothers for a holiday in the early 1930s. This experience inspired the novel In Youth is Pleasure, published in 1945, in which Denton Welch becomes the fifteen year old Orvil Pym.

Oatlands Park Hotel at around the time Denton Welch stayed there. Postcard courtesy of a private collection.

The opening lines set the scene:

‘One summer, several years before the war began, a young boy of fifteen was staying with his father and two elder brothers at a hotel near the Thames in Surrey. The hotel had once been a country house…’

Although not named in the novel, the hotel was Oatlands Park. In the 18th century the estate was home to the Duke of Newcastle, and amongst his landscape embellishments was an amazing grotto: Its early history has been well-told elsewhere, so only the briefest of summaries is necessary here.: there were three chambers in the lower storey, one of which contained a cold bath, and a banqueting room above. The grotto was decorated inside and out with fossils, tufa and shells and one of the floors was made of polished horses’ teeth. A visitor in 1783 wrote that ‘it gives one the idea that it was intended as a Mansion for the Queen of the Fairy.’

In the novel Orvil sneaks out of the hotel to explore, and first encounters a ‘cottage orné’ in the pleasure grounds. Feeling ‘delightfully like a criminal’ he jemmies open a window to climb inside where ‘everything was in a terrible decay’.

Grotto Cottage, called the ‘cottage orné’ by Welch, on a card sent in 1904. Courtesy of a private collection.

There was stained glass in the windows, and a ‘grotesque’ little fireplace. Elaborate Gothic paper, designed to imitate stone arcades filled with cinquefoil tracery, ‘hung down from the walls in weeping strips’. Upstairs, the ceiling had collapsed and throughout there was a ‘terrible smell of death and decay’.

The cottage orné, or Grotto Cottage, in 1848. Artist unknown. Courtesy of Elmbridge Museum, Elmbridge Borough Council.

The impressionable Orvil longed to renovate the cottage as his romantic retreat. Sadly, no-one would have that pleasure. The ‘cottage orné’, also known as the Hermitage or Grotto Cottage, survived for only a decade or so after Welch’s visit. It continued to decay and disappeared completely some time before the Second World War.

To return to the novel, Orvil leaves the cottage and enters the grotto, where he is astonished by the decoration: ‘All the walls of the cave were lined with giant shells, feldspars, quartzes, stalactites and fossils. In one place, a thin trickle of water dripped from pink lip to pink lip of enormous scallop-shells’. Welch’s prose is deliciously sensuous, and prepares the reader for the next scene when Orvil, ‘tremors’ passing through him, progresses through the chambers only to discover two of the hotel guests in a compromising position (you will have to read the book to find out more).

Early 20th century postcard courtesy of a private collection.

Welch fills the reader in with some historical detail, whilst allowing young Orvil to be entirely innocent of it: ‘King George IV had once been entertained to dinner here by the son of the duke who had made the grotto, but Orvil knew nothing of this. He loved the grotto for itself alone as something beautiful and strange’.

In 1870 the Grotto was described as ‘ugly and neglected’ and ‘sadly dilapidated’ by none other than Queen Victoria. Wartime vandalism caused further damage, and by 1947 it was in urgent need of repair. The hotel owner felt unable to meet the costs of renovation and, considering the building a danger to the ‘innumerable trespassers, whom barbed wire and the strongest chains have failed to keep out’, applied for a license to demolish. This was approved by the local authority, which failed to raise the issue with the County Council, despite an undertaking to do so. Despite last minute attempts by heritage bodies to save the structure, it was demolished in the first months of 1948, only a few years after Barbara Jones recorded the interior.

Barbara Jones (1912-1978) The Shell Grotto at Oatlands near Weybridge
Signed and dated l.r.: Barbara Jones/1940. Watercolour with gouache, 37 by 27.5 cm (14 ¾ by 10 ¾ ins). Courtesy of Harry Moore-Gwyn Fine Art

Happily, Dorothy Grenside, the then curator of the Weybridge Museum, had the foresight to request permission to collect ‘specimens and fragments’ from the grotto before demolition began. As well as some of the decorative rockwork, she also took custody of the marble Venus which stood in the bath chamber.

The exterior of the grotto as seen on an early 20th century postcard. Courtesy of a private collection.

The Twickenham MP Edward Keeling felt that the Grotto had been let down by the system. The Town and Country Planning Act of 1947 had introduced the listing of historic buildings, but compiling the lists was a slow process. Keeling raised the matter of the grotto in Parliament, urging the Minister of Town and Country Planning, Lewis Silkin, to ‘accelerate the issue of lists’, concluding that there must be no ‘further such ignorant demolitions’.

The Architectural Review ran an article on the destruction of the grotto under the headline ‘Vandalism Triumphant’. Marcus Whiffen wrote that the demolition was a ‘tragic business’, and shared Keeling’s frustration that the Town and Country Planning Act had failed to safeguard the structure.

In May 1948, Lavender Westwood told the tale of the demolition in Country Life, and took some consolation from the fact that the ‘wanton’ destruction had proved ‘considerably longer and more expensive than was anticipated.’ Writing in his journal that same month, Welch’s dismay is apparent in his terse opening sentence: ‘They have destroyed the Grotto at Oatlands’, and he concluded ‘When something beautiful and fantastic that will never be made again is destroyed, one feels that the earth is just that bit drearier…’

To conclude on a cheerier note, in 1937 Welch was one of the young artists whose work featured in the Shell advertising campaign ‘To Visit Britain’s Landmarks’, which focused on British follies. Welch painted Hadlow Castle, aka May’s Folly, which was close to his home in Kent. So after a largely monochrome post about two sad losses, here’s some colour to cheer you up.

Hadlow Castle, Kent by Denton Welch, 1937. Shell commissioned artists to paint follies for a series of posters which were displayed on the sides of the company’s lorries. A large part of Hadlow Castle was demolished in the 1950s, but the tower survives and has been restored.


For the early history of the grotto and the Oatlands landscape a quick internet search will lead you to a series of articles by garden historian Michael Symes. This link will take you to a paper on the grotto by Tim Knox

In Youth is Pleasure was recently reprinted as a Penguin Classic

Oatlands Park is still a hotel, but sadly without the glorious garden ornaments

Weybridge Museum is no more, but the collection, including the Oatlands grotto artefacts, can be seen on the Elmbridge Museum website. There is, for instance, a photo of the statue of Venus here

Thank you for reading. Your thoughts are always welcome: please go to the bottom of the page to share any comments.

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12 thoughts on “The Grotto and Cottage Orné, Oatlands Park, Surrey, as seen by the novelist Denton Welch”

  1. Hazelle Jackson says:

    The demolition of Oatlands Grotto was such a great loss to our heritage. The owner must have been really determined to remove it in the face of quite vociferous opposition.. He was said to be very concerned that children would fall from it and get injured. I imagine too, he did not want the expense of repairs.

    It was always a celebrated grotto and the subject of engravings and prints before the advent of postcards. If you search on Google for Oatlands Grotto and choose the sub heading “images” you find quite a lot of these retrieved including drawings of the site showing the extent of the rock work around the lake. There is also another view of the interior. I believe one of the large conch shells is now situated in the grotto at Painshill just up the road, which of course thankfully still remains and HAS been restored.

    Hazelle Jackson

    1. Editor says:

      Hello Hazelle. Yes a great loss. I didn’t know that a shell was at Painshill, that seems a rather perfect home. I hope fragments made their way to many local gardens, large and small, rather than being turned into hardcore by the demolition company.

    1. Editor says:

      Thanks John. I’m ashamed to say I have never made it to Goldney’s grotto. I was booked to visit last year but sadly Covid got in the way. I will rearrange as soon as I can.

      1. Karl Winship says:

        Excellent article and images . I was pleased to read that some items were saved for the local museum. I was particularly pleased about the safeguarding of the statue of Venus and appreciated the link to the museum website .

        It reminded me of the statue of Venus which was lost at the Studley Royal Water Garden when the statuary was put up for auction in approximately 1967 .

        Does the The Folly Flâneuse by any chance know the current location of the statue of. Venus that was for many years in the Banqueting House at the Studley Royal Water Gardens ? I really would like to know .

        I do so look forward to reading the Folly Flâneuse early on a Saturday morning. The articles and images are very interesting. Keep up the good work !

        1. Editor says:

          Dear Karl. Thank you so much for your kind words and I will endeavour to keep delivering a Saturday morning story to you. I will get back to you on the Studley Venus after I have consulted an expert friend. Enjoy the rest of the weekend.

  2. Julia Abel Smith says:

    Thank you so much. Is this the estate where Frederica, Duchess of York lived with her menagerie?
    I love those Shell posters and had never heard of Denton Welch.

    1. Editor says:

      Hello Julia. Yes, apparently Emile Zola was moved by the graves of all the pets. Very pleased to have introduced you to Denton Welch.

  3. Gwyn says:

    Lovely, lovely, lovely. What a tragic loss, and to think my parents could have had time to take me to see it instead of shipping me off to Africa. Still, its demise was one of the triggers for the Historic Buildings and Ancient Monuments Act 1953, less than a century after those unlettered barbarians in France instituted a similar safeguard.

    1. Editor says:

      Hello Gwyn. Lovely indeed and a terrible loss.

  4. Iain Gray says:

    I think the grotto may have been mentioned in Three Men n A Boat.

    1. Editor says:

      Hello Iain. Well that gives me a lovely excuse to dig out my copy and re-read it, thanks.

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